## Description

**Geotechnical Problems using ABAQUS**

The analysis of geotechnical problems is rather complex due to stress dependent material behavior and varying stiffness for loading and unloading conditions. Generally, soil has three different phases which are soil skeleton, pore air and pore water which often lead to complex interaction mechanism. Also, large deformation of soil continuum is observed under loading. Such complex behavior, boundary and material modelling can easily be found out and addressed by ABAQUS. One of the practical books in the field of modeling and numerical verification of soil behavior is the “**APPLIED SOIL** **MECHANICS** **with ABAQUS Applications by SAM HELWANY**” book, which has evaluated several types of soil and structure behavior in 2 and 3 dimensional semi-infinite environments in its different seasons. This educational product contains Abaqus numerical models of problems in chapters 3 to 9 of the mentioned book. These chapters are: stresses in soil, consolidation, shear strength of soil, shallow foundations, lateral earth pressure and retaining walls, piles and pile groups and permeability and seepage.

**1- STRESSES IN SOIL**

Accurate estimate of stress distribution in a soil mass is essential for calculations of elastic and consolidation settlements, of the bearing capacity of soil for shallow and deep foundations design, of lateral earth pressures for the design of earth-retaining structures, and of slope stability. In this chapter we show how to calculate in situ soil stresses and the additional soil stresses caused by external loads. As you can see in the figure below, examples 3-4 to 3-9 of this book are completely solved with Abaqus and will be provided to you after payment.

**2- CONSOLIDATION using ABAQUS**

When a saturated soil is loaded, its pore pressure increases. This pore pressure increase, called excess pore pressure, u, dissipates from the boundaries of the soil layer as time goes by, resulting in consolidation settlement. This process is time dependent and is a function of the permeability of the soil, the length of the drainage path (defined later), and the compressibility of the soil. This process, along with more theoretical details, is called the consolidation process. you can find in the figure below, examples 4-1 to 4-8 of this book which are completely solved with Abaqus and will be provided to you after payment.

**3- Shear strength of soil using ABAQUS**

The shear strength of soil is the shear resistance offered by the soil to overcome applied shear stresses. Shear strength is to soil as tensile strength to steel. When you design a steel truss for a bridge, for example, you have to make sure that the tensile stress in any truss element is less than the tensile strength of steel, with some safety factor. Similarly, in soil mechanics one has to make sure that the shear stress in any soil element underlying a shallow foundation. As you can see in the figure below, examples 5-6 to 5-10 of this book are completely solved with Abaqus and will be provided to you after payment.

**4- Shallow foundations using ABAQUS**

Shallow foundations are structural members that convert the concentrated superstructure loads into pressures applied to the supporting soil. Square, circular, strip, and mat foundations are common shapes of shallow foundations. Each of these shapes is suitable for a specific type of structure: A square foundation is used under a column, a circular foundation is used for cylindrical structures such as water tanks, a strip foundation is used under retaining walls, and a mat (raft) foundation is used under an entire building. As you can see in the figure below, examples 6-2 to 6-4 of this book are completely solved with Abaqus and will be provided to you after payment.

**5- Lateral earth pressure and retaining walls using ABAQUS**

Retaining walls are structural members used to support vertical or nearly vertical soil backfills. This is usually needed when there is a change of grade. A retaining wall can be used to retain the backfill required to widen a roadway and etc. As you can see in the figure below, examples 7-3 and 7-5 of this book are completely solved with Abaqus and will be provided to you after payment.

** 6- Piles and pile groups using ABAQUS**

Piles are long, slender structural members that transmit superstructure loads to greater depths within the underlying soil. Piles are generally used when soil conditions are not suited for the use of shallow foundations. Piles resist applied loads through side friction (skin friction) and end bearing. Friction piles resist a significant portion of their loads by the interface friction developed between their surface and the surrounding soils. On the other hand, end-bearing piles rely on the bearing capacity of the soil underlying their bases. Usually, end-bearing piles are used to transfer most of their loads to a stronger stratum that exists at a reasonable depth. you can find in the figure below, examples 8-2, 8-4, 8-6, 8-8 and 8-9 of this book which are completely solved with Abaqus and will be provided to you after payment.

**7- Permeability and seepage using ABAQUS**

Soils have interconnected voids that form many tortuous tiny tubes that allow water to flow. The average size of these tubes depends on soil porosity, which in turn determines how easy (or difficult) it is for water to seep through the soil. Being able to calculate the quantity of water flowing through a soil and the forces associated with this flow is crucial to the design of various civil engineering structures, such as earth dams, concrete dams, and retaining walls. you can see in the figure below, examples 9-5 to 9-12 of this book which are completely solved with Abaqus and will be provided to you after payment.

Our institute has analyzed various other examples of soil problems using ABAQUS that you can evaluate by referring to the link.

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